Mineralogy and Gemmology
Methods of mineralogical research
Section 1. Application of spectroscopy of minerals for solving problems of theoretical and applied mineralogy and gemology.
This section provides acquaintance with the theoretical basis and practical methods of spectroscopic research with the equipment of the Department of Mineralogy and leading scientific and researching centers in Moscow:
- Optical spectroscopy in the visible and ultraviolet regions (familiarity with the hardware, obtaining of spectra, interpretation of the results, including the calculation of colorimetric parameters).
- Luminescence (familiarity with the hardware, obtaining of spectra, interpretation of the results).
- Raman spectroscopy (familiarity with the hardware, obtaining of spectra, interpretation of the results).
- EPR spectroscopy (familiarity with the hardware, obtaining of spectra, interpretation of the results).
- Magnetometry and thermal- magnetic analysis (familiarity with the hardware, the measurement of the magnetic characteristics, interpretation of the results).
Section 2. Methods of transmission and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis
This section provides acquaintance with the theoretical basis and practical methods of work on the electron-probe hardware of the geological faculty and centers of the collective usage in the MSU, as well as in leading scientific and researching centers in Moscow.
Discussed and studied:
- The basic processes of interaction of electrons and matter, types of contrasts and their application to the study of mineral objects.
- The device of the scanning and transmission electron microscopes, types of detectors, methods of sample’s preparation. Were discussed the image quality, occurring of artifacts, methods of data processing, problem of the overlay peaks, construction of the X-ray maps of concentrations and modal analysis.
- Qualitative chemical analysis of mineral objects using energy-dispersive spectrometer and crystal-parsers.
- Quantitative chemical microanalysis with the calculation of the concentrations of main and trace elements and selection of optimal conditions. Support of high precision, sensitivity and locality of the analysis.
- Diagnostics of new minerals and their synthetic analogues.
- Study of heterogeneity and zonation of minerals and crystals: mineral inclusions, decomposition of solid solutions, the substitution pattern.
- Quantitative image analysis. Stereomicroscopy, Auger-spectroscopy, Ionic micro-analysis.
Duration — 1 month.
Author: Associate Professor Tatiana Posukhova
Department of Mineralogy,
Faculty of Geology, MSU